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Cybersecurity
Glossary

A-Z Cybersecurity

Welcome to the Cybersecurity Glossary!

 

Are you looking for a comprehensive and easytouse resource for understanding the language of cybersecurity? Look no further! Our Cybersecurity Glossary is your goto guide for understanding the key terms and concepts of the industry. Our Cybersecurity Glossary helps you get up to speed quickly.

 

We have organized the content into easytonavigate categories so you can quickly find the definition youre looking for. Whether youre a novice or an experienced cybersecurity professional, our Cybersecurity Glossary is the perfect resource for understanding the language of this ever-evolving field. Start exploring today!

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

A

Account Takeover (ATO)

Account takeover (ATO) is a form of identity theft and fraud. It happens when a malicious third party gains access to a user’s account credentials. Criminals can then change account details, send out phishing emails, and steal financial info or sensitive data.

Attack Vectors

An attack vector is the path that a hacker takes to exploit cybersecurity vulnerabilities.

B

Brand Forgery (brand impersonation)

Brand forgery, also known as brand impersonation, is a type of phishing email that uses well-known company names and logos to exploit victims.

Brute Force Attacks

Brute-force attacks are when a cybercriminal submits many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing the correct password.

C

CEO Fraud

Cybercriminals send savvy emails impersonating the company CEO or other company executives and ask employees, typically in HR or accounting to help them out by sending a wire transfer. Often referred to as Business Email Compromise (BEC), this cybercrime uses spoofed or compromised email accounts to trick email recipients into acting.

Cloud App Security

Cloud App Security uses advanced threat and data protection for Microsoft Office 365, Google Workspace, and other cloud services.

Code Obfuscation

Code Obfuscation is a way to make the source code of an application difficult to read and comprehend.

Code-injection attacks

Code Injection is the general term for attack types that consist of injecting code that is then interpreted/executed by the application.

Collaboration Tools

Online collaboration tools help both remote and in-house teams achieve greater levels of transparency, execute projects better, optimize resources and work together better overall.

Computer Vision

Computer Vision is a type of AI that identifies brand logos, QR codes, and text-based images to thwart phishing attacks designed to bypass content-filtering technologies

Content-Based Attacks

Content-based attacks are advanced threats hidden in files and links deliviered through email, cloud drives and instant messaging apps.

D

Domain Spoofing

Domain spoofing occurs when an attacker appears to use a company’s domain to impersonate a company or one of its employees. This is usually done by sending emails with false domain names that appear legitimate. Or by setting up websites and alternating characters that read as correct.

E

Evasion

Evasion is a technique used by attackers to bypass security defenses in order to deliver a malicious payload while remaining undetected.

F

Fraud

(Cyber) fraud is the act of using the internet to deceive someone in order to illegally obtain sensitive data from an individual or organization for financial gain.

G

Gateway

A secure web gateway (SWG) is a security system that acts as a proxy server between a client and the internet. It is designed to protect an organization's network and users from internet-based threats by inspecting incoming and outgoing internet traffic and blocking access to malicious or inappropriate content.

H

Heuristic Analysis

Heuristic analyses looks for new threats that are not found by signature-based solutions, such as new malware patterns or new types of malware.

Hacker

A hacker is a person who uses their technical skills to gain unauthorized access to computer systems or networks, or to bypass security measures in order to perform malicious activities such as stealing sensitive information, spreading malware, or disrupting services.

I

IP spoofing

IP spoofing is when a hacker uses tools to change the source address in the packet header. The receiving computer system thinks the packet is from a trusted source, such as another computer on a legitimate network, and accept it. Because this occurs at the network level, there are no external signs of tampering.

Insider Threat

Insider threat refers to the risk posed to an organization by its own employees, contractors, or other trusted individuals who have access to sensitive information or systems. These individuals may intentionally or unintentionally compromise security, either through malicious actions such as theft, sabotage, or espionage, or through carelessness or lack of proper training. Insider threats can be especially difficult to detect and prevent, as these individuals often have legitimate access to the organization's resources and may not exhibit any obvious warning signs of their intentions.

J

K

Keylogger

A keylogger is a type of software or hardware that records and logs the keys typed on a computer keyboard. It is often used for tracking and monitoring activity on a computer, such as recording login information or capturing messages and emails typed by the user. Keyloggers can be used for legitimate purposes, such as helping parents monitor their children's online activity or helping employers monitor employee productivity. However, they can also be used for nefarious purposes, such as stealing sensitive information or invading an individual's privacy. Keyloggers can be difficult to detect and often operate in the background without the user's knowledge.

L

Lateral Phishing

Attackers use recently hijacked accounts to send phishing emails to unsuspecting recipients. These usually include close contacts in the company and partners at external organizations.

Login page Spoofing

(AKA as website spoofing). Login Page spoofing is when an attacker makes a malicious website that looks like a legitimate one.

Look-alike Domain

See Domain Spoofing.

M

Malware

Malware (shorthand for malicious software) consists of code developed by cyberattackers. It's created to cause extensive damage to data and systems or to gain unauthorized access to a network.

Malware Obfuscation

Malware Obfuscation is a process that makes textual and binary data difficult to understand.

N

N-Day

N-day is a flaw that is already publicly known but may or may not have a security patch available.

O

Online Collaboration Software

Online Collaboration Software allows employees to work remotely while still being able to directly communicate and collaborate on projects and documents.

Obfuscation

Code obfuscation is the practice of modifying source code in such a way as to make it more difficult to understand or reverse engineer. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to protect intellectual property, to make it more difficult for attackers to find vulnerabilities in the code, or to make it harder for competitors to reverse engineer and replicate a product.

P

Phishing Kit

A phishing kit is a set of materials and tools that allows scammers with little technical ability to create a convincing phish.

Q

Quarantine

Quarantine is the process of temporarily holding emails that have been flagged as potentially malicious or spam in a separate folder or location, rather than allowing them to be delivered to the intended recipient's inbox.

R

Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim's files. The attackers then demand a ransom from the victim to restore access to the files upon payment. Ransomware typically spreads through phishing emails or by exploiting vulnerabilities in software. It can have a devastating impact on individuals and businesses, as it can lead to the loss of important data and disrupt daily operations.

S

Signature-based detection

Signature-based detection uses a known list of indicators of compromise (IOCs). These may include specific network attack behaviors, known byte sequences, and malicious domains. They may also include email subject lines and file hashes.

Social Engineering

Social engineering is the art of manipulating people so they give up confidential information.

Spear phishing

Spear phishing is an email or electronic communications scam targeted towards a specific individual, organization or business.

Steganography

Steganography is the technique of hiding secret data within an ordinary, non-secret, file or message to avoid detection. The secret data is then extracted at its destination.

T

Threat Actor

A threat actor is an individual or group who seeks to exploit vulnerabilities in a system or network for malicious purposes, such as stealing sensitive data, disrupting operations, or spreading malware. Threat actors may be motivated by financial gain, political ideology, or personal vendetta. They may operate independently or as part of a larger organization, and may use a variety of tactics, such as phishing attacks, malware infections, or physical intrusions.

U

Unauthorized Access

Unauthorized access refers to the act of accessing a computer or network system without permission or proper authorization. This can include attempting to log in with a wrong username or password, accessing restricted areas of a network or system, or attempting to manipulate or disrupt the system in any way without permission. Unauthorized access is a serious security risk, as it can lead to data breaches, malware infections, and other cybersecurity issues. It is important for businesses and organizations to take measures to prevent unauthorized access and protect their systems from potential threats.

V

Vulnerability

A system vulnerability is a weakness or gap in a system that can be exploited by external factors, such as hackers or malware. These vulnerabilities can be found in the system's hardware, software, or processes and can be exploited to gain unauthorized access, steal sensitive information, or disrupt system functionality. System vulnerabilities can be accidental or intentional, and they can vary in severity and likelihood of exploitation. To mitigate the risks associated with system vulnerabilities, organizations and individuals should regularly assess their systems for vulnerabilities and implement measures to address and prevent exploitation.

W

Web Browser Security

Web browser security refers to the measures taken to protect a web browser and its users from online threats such as hacking, phishing, malware, and other cyber attacks. It involves implementing various technical, physical, and organizational measures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of a web browser and its data. Web browser security is an essential aspect of maintaining the trust and reputation of a web browser, as well as protecting its users from potential harm. This can include measures such as using secure servers, implementing secure coding practices, using encryption, implementing access controls, and regularly updating software to fix vulnerabilities.

X

Xray

The ultimate SOC operations tool. Perception Point’s personalized dashboard helps security and IT experts to see, understand, and manage each and every incident in the most detailed way.

Y

You

When it comes to security, you and your organization matter.

Z

Zero-days

A zero-day vulnerability, also known as a zero-day exploit or just a zero-day, is a security vulnerability that is unknown to the software vendor or developer and has not yet been publicly disclosed or patched. This type of vulnerability can be exploited by attackers to gain unauthorized access to a system, network, or application, potentially allowing them to steal sensitive information, disrupt operations, or cause other damage.